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- Pirin National Park
Spread over an area of over 27, ha, at an altitude between and m in the Pirin Mountains, southwest Bulgaria, the site comprises diverse limestone mountain landscapes with glacial lakes, waterfalls, caves and predominantly coniferous forests.
It was added to the World Heritage List in The extension now covers an area of around 40, ha in the Pirin Mountains, and overlaps with the Pirin National Park, except for two areas developed for tourism skiing. The dominant part of the extension is high mountain territory over m in altitude, and covered mostly by alpine meadows, rocky screes and summits. You can also view the entire list of information by clicking Expand all on the top left. Would you like to share feedback to support the accuracy of information for this site?
If so, send your comments below. Back to search Go to search. Pirin National Park. Inscribed in. See all information. Summary Conservation Outlook Finalised on. Significant concern. Overall, the site has been in a relatively good state of conservation until recently, but disturbance and fragmentation of the site associated with the exclusion of the skiing areas incompatible with World Heritage status now part of the buffer zone have been of significant concern.
Climate change is expected to have low to moderate impact on species, ecosystem and geological formations. However, concerns are high with regards to potentially increasing pressures on resources required to maintain skiing tourism under the changing climate.
The management is relatively effective regarding daily tasks, but not in a position to confront the strong external interests in tourism development. Low levels of funding are an additional constraint. Overall, the site appears to be in a relatively good state of conservation.
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However, disturbance and fragmentation of the site associated with the exclusion of the skiing areas incompatible with World Heritage status now part of the buffer zone is of high concern. Some areas of the park, now excluded from the site and included as its buffer zone, have been severely damaged by ski infrastructure development, as was expressed in several World Heritage Committee Decisions. There are new concerns in this regard in connection with the expansion of the tourism zone and the zone of buildings and sport facilities the latter located entirely within the buffer zone of the property envisaged by the new draft management plan.
Until a Strategic Environmental Assessment and a specific assessment of potential impacts on the OUV of the property of potentially allowed infrastructure expansion is available, concerns remain with regards to potential impacts on the OUV of the property even if infrastructure expansion would only take place in the buffer zone.
Other threats like climate change, impact of summer tourism are rather diffuse with limited impact. The management is relatively effective regarding daily tasks, but the power of the Park administration in the face of increasing interest in tourism development and resource use is very limited. The park administration is under severe economic constraints.
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Ongoing pressures for ski tourism development in the buffer zone of the property remain of concern and concerns have also been expressed by different stakeholders with regards to the draft new management plan. Expand all Collapse all. Finalised on. Description of values Values. World Heritage values. A good example of the continuing evolution of flora and an example of high mountain ecosystems in natural condition.
The site is a good example of the continuing evolution of flora, as evidenced by a number of endemic and relict species, and the property also protects an example of a functioning ecosystem that is representative of the important natural ecosystems of the Balkan uplands.
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Although the forests are affected by some historical use, the natural functioning of the ecosystem ensures the protection of its regionally significant biodiversity values WHC, Mountain scenery of exceptional beauty.
The aesthetic values of some parts of the property have been negatively affected by ski infrastructure and these impacts remain IUCN Consultation , even though those areas have been consequently excluded from the boundaries of the property and included in its buffer zone. Diverse limestone mountain landscapes. The principal earth science values of the property relate to its glacial geomorphology, demonstrated through a range of features including cirques, deep valleys and over 70 glacial lakes.
The mountains of the property show a variety of forms and have been developed in several different rock types WHC, Functioning natural processes allow for study of the continued evolution of the landforms of the property, and help to understand other upland areas in the region UNEP-WCMC Other important biodiversity values. Biodiversity of flora and fauna. The fauna of Pirin National Park includes 45 mammal species, including brown bear, wolf and pine marten, and bird species.
Pirin is also home to eight species of amphibians, eleven species of reptiles and six fish species WHC Assessment information Threats. Current Threats High Threat. Some areas of the park, now excluded as buffer zone, have been severely damaged by the development and operation of ski zones; however, these areas are relatively small and limited in comparison with the whole site.
High Threat. Inside site. Outside site. Overall, grazing is relatively well managed in Pirin National Park and is only allowed on meadows and pastures located within the Zone for Sustainable Use of Open Areas and in the Tourism Zone. Yearly quotas and permissions are issued by the National Park Directorate and regular inspections are conducted to check compliance with the established regulations.
However, some concerns have been expressed regarding eutrophication of lakes due to grazing in their vicinity Consultation with the State Party, Low Threat.
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Illegal hunting inside and outside of the property has been regularly reported in the past IUCN Consultation, However, only a few cases of illegal hunting or carrying of hunting weapons have been detected in the recent years and those detected have been registered and led to relevant proceedings. Regular inspections are also being carried out to detect any illegal activities Consultation with the State Party, So far timber extraction has been limited to forestry maintenance activities, as commercial logging is forbidden in national parks by the Protected Areas Act.
However, vigilance is required in order to ensure that any timber extraction in the future is only done if justified as such maintenance activity, e. Development of skiing infrastructure in the Bansko ski area located in the buffer zone of the property has been subject to numerous Decisions by the World Heritage Committee and also led to certain modifications of the original boundaries of the property, specifically when the Bansko and Dobrinishte tourism zones were excluded from the boundaries of the property and included in its buffer zone World Heritage Committee, While more recent developments within the Bansko ski area mainly related to the maintenance of existing facilities, they included extensive activities such as the extension of the system for artificial snow, the reconstruction of an existing ski surface lift and the reconstruction of a ski lift station UNESCO, Concerns have also been expressed by different stakeholders over the fact that the new draft management plan for Pirin National Park would allow extension of areas where tourism infrastructure development is allowed UNESCO, Temperature extremes.
Climate change particularly changes in snow regime may affect the caves and karst system as well as endemic species with very limited distribution, but its specific impacts are still difficult to judge.
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Potential Threats Very High Threat. The political and economic pressures are very high for mass tourism development and expansion of skiing facilities and other infrastructure, even though expansion of skiing facilities would only be permitted within the buffer zone of the property. Very High Threat. In the Council of Ministers approved a Decision adopting amendments to the current Management Plan of Pirin National Park which provide for potential expansion of skiing facilities within the buffer zone of the property.
Until such an SEA and a specific assessment of potential impacts on the OUV of the property of potentially allowed infrastructure expansion is available, concerns remain with regards to potential impacts on the OUV of the property even if infrastructure expansion would only take place in the buffer zone.
So far timber extraction has been limited to forestry maintenance activities, as commercial logging is forbidden in national parks by the Protected Areas Act Consultation with the State Party, It is unclear whether the introduction of the zone with forest management foresees activities other than those related to maintenance.
Overall assessment of threats High Threat. Protection and management. Assessing Protection and Management. Relationships with local people. Some Concern. However, pressures for further economic development of the area and expansion of tourism infrastructure and facilities continue, as reported in a number of State of Conservation reports over the recent years, and part of civil society have been expressing strong concerns regarding the management of the property, particularly the new draft management plan.
Legal framework. According to the State Party, legal framework for the maintenance of the Outstanding Universal Value of the World Heritage property provides an adequate basis for effective management and protection State Party of Bulgaria, However, recent developments have shown that there are some differences in the interpretation of this legal framework, as becomes clear from an ongoing Court case related to the proposed new draft Management Plan for the property which has been appealed by a group of civil society organizations.
However, a number of activities have recently been undertaken, including regular inspections, to detect and prevent any illegal activities, particularly illegal hunting. Integration into regional and national planning systems.
It is also of concern that the development of spatial plans and tourism development planning of the Bansko and Dobrinishte ski zones under the newly drafted management plan may not be in line with the integrity of the property IUCN Consultation, Increasing developments in the buffer zone and immediate vicinity of the property may compromise landscape connectivity.
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Serious Concern. In the past, the management system of Pirin National Park was considered relatively effective, clear, and stable if rather limited in terms of available resources.
However, recently concerns have been expressed that the newly drafted management plan for the site would set out a management regime that — if indeed improved and implemented — may result in a level of tourism development that could threaten the integrity of the property IUCN Consultation However, the draft new management plan has been appealed in Court by a group of civil society organizations.
Pirin National Park
Management effectiveness. However, there are concerns about the enforcement of the protection regime of the property IUCN Consultation Implementation of Committee decisions and recommendations. After protests of concerned stakeholders, the issue is now disputed in court.
Stakeholder consultation October When Pirin NP was inscribed, the boundaries of the WHS did not follow an ecological rationale and hence created a rather fragmented property.
In , the Committee approved the extension of the property and the establishment of a buffer zone. The same decision, excluded the Bansko and Dobrenishte tourism zones 1, Sustainable finance. Data Deficient.